Understanding Burndown Charts

Burndown charts are a great way to visualize sprint progress. In this post we look into what a burndown chart is, what it's used for and how to read it.

Burndown charts are fairly simple to understand but teams often struggle to understand the full meaning behind the graph.

In this article, we'll cover in depth about what they are and how you can use them to improve your team's productivity.

What is a burndown chart?

A burndown chart is used by Agile software development teams to track:

  1. How much work is pending
  2. How much time is remaining to complete the work

Essentially, a burndown chart is a line chart drawn between "work remaining" and "time". These charts are used by teams who run scrum sprints to track their progress as they “burn through” tasks in a sprint.

This makes it effortless for the team to understand if things are going as per plan or if they have to make changes so they can hit the goal on time.

Parts of a burndown chart

Parts of Burndown Chart
The different parts of a burndown chart

X Axis

The x-axis of the chart always indicates time (usually in days).

Y Axis

The y-axis represents the remaining work to be done in the sprint. This may be represented by either Tasks Remaining (in # of tasks) or Remaining Effort (in Story Points/Hours).

Progress line

The progress line indicates how your team is progressing with their sprint. The burndown charts track projects and sprints in real-time and updates with the new remaining estimates. As the sprint progresses, this line will indicate whether your team is on track and if any corrective action is needed.


This is a diagonal line drawn downwards, from top-left to bottom-right on the graph. Your sprint progress line should ideally be as close to the guideline as possible. If your team is able to complete all stories at a steady pace throughout the sprint, your progress line will end up looking exactly like the guideline.

Choosing the right metric to track

Y axis as number of tasks remaining

This is a plot of how many tasks remain in the sprint at any given date. As tasks are completed across time, the progress line starts moving downwards. The biggest advantage with this method is that the graph is easy to understand.

Tasks Remaining in Burndown Chart
Items remaining in a burndown chart

The drawback of using this type of burndown chart is that tasks are not estimated. Not all tasks take equal effort to complete. Very often, teams which leave the difficult tasks for the end of the sprint find that they are unable to complete all tasks despite being “on track” for most of the duration.

Y axis as story points remaining

This is a plot of how many story/estimate points remain as time progresses. Story points are a great way to estimate tasks by their complexity. This normalizes effort needed to complete tasks.

Points Remaining in Burndown Chart
Points remaining in a burndown chart

The plot ends up similar to the previous method but estimate points remove the ambiguity that comes with tracking task completion.

How to read a burndown chart?

The Burndown Graph is read by comparing the sprint progress line to the guideline. The closer the two lines are to each other, the better your chances are of completing all tasks by the deadline.

Reading a Burndown Chart
How to read a burndown chart

1. Behind schedule

If the progress line is above the guideline, it means your team is behind schedule and should have ideally completed more work by this point.

2. On track

The progress line and the guideline are close together. The team will hit targets if they maintain their current velocity.

3. Ahead of schedule

The progress line is below the guideline. The team is on track to hit targets even before the sprint's end date. This may be because the tasks were overestimated while planning the sprint. The team can add more tasks to the sprint to ensure everyone is occupied throughout the sprint.

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Different burndown chart examples

Here are different burndown chart examples and common patterns you are likely to observe while using burndown charts to track sprints.

1. Example for Irregular status updates (or) Improper breakdown of stories

Teams that update their statuses in chunks (at the end of every week for example) end up with a stepped graph. Regular status updates give a more accurate graph. Ideally, Sprint teams should keep their tasks updated on a daily basis.

Irregular updates in a Burndown Chart
A burndown chart with irregular updates

A stepped graph is also sometimes the result of improper breakdown of tasks. If tasks are not broken down enough, individual issues may take a long time to complete: leading to an illusion of a lack of progress over several days. The best way to avoid this is to break down large tasks into small executable chunks of work.

2. Burndown chart example for progress updated at the end of the sprint

End of Sprint updates in a Burndown Chart
When updates are made at the end of the Sprint

This is the burndown chart of a team that updates all their statuses a day before the sprint review meeting. This chart adds very little value during a retrospective and teams should make sure their statuses are updated daily.

3. Example of burndown chart for well ahead of schedule

This graph represents a team that overestimated the time it would take to complete tasks.

How a burndown chart looks when you are ahead of the schedule
Ahead of Schedule as per Burndown Chart

If this team maintains their current velocity, they will end up completing all tasks well before the sprint end date. The product owner needs to add more tasks to the sprint (represented by the steep rise in the estimate), in order to keep the team busy for the entire duration of the sprint.

4. Example of a burndown chart that is well behind schedule

This is the burndown graph of a team that is struggling to keep up with the ideal guideline.

Behind Schedule as per Burndown Chart
A burndown chart when the team is behind schedule

This is most likely because they underestimated the effort required to complete their tasks. The two ways to correct course is to:

  1. Add more people to the team (or)
  2. Reduce the scope of the sprint by removing stories or tasks.

When is a burndown chart useful?

Burndown Charts are useful during both: active sprints and sprint retrospectives.

During the sprint

Looking at the burndown chart during an ongoing sprint can help a scrum master or product owner answer the following questions:

  1. Is the sprint progress on target?
  2. Will all stories (or tasks) be completed on time?
  3. What corrective action needs to be taken to hit targets?

After the sprint

Burndown Charts are an indicator of a Sprint team’s performance. During a sprint retrospective, burndown charts serve as a reference for discussions around estimation accuracy, sprint performance, roadblocks and changes to be made during subsequent sprints.

Limitations of burndown charts and alternatives

The Burndown Chart doesn’t actually tell you how much work is being completed by the team

While the burndown chart talks about how much work is remaining, it doesn’t actually talk about how much work is being done. This data can be visualized in the form of a burnup chart, which is nothing but an inverted burndown.

Burndowns can be used for sprints only: Burndown charts don’t make much sense when they are not timeboxed. Over a long duration, the backlog goes through too many changes for remaining estimates to make much sense. This is why burndown charts aren’t recommended for Agile teams practicing Kanban methodology.

It can be difficult to capture scope changes and visualize a changing backlog

As discussed above, changes in the backlog size are not captured effectively on a burndown chart. One workaround would be to add more data to the chart but this affects the readability of the graph. These limitations of the burndown chart can be overcome by using a Cumulative Flow Diagram.

The Burndown graph doesn’t account for “in progress” status changes

Burndown Charts focus on completion of issues. Status changes during the “in progress” state aren’t captured on the burnup or burndown chart. This can often lead to the illusion that no progress is being made by the team. To account for changes in status of items in progress, cumulative flow diagrams or control charts can be used.

A cumulative flow diagram
A cumulative flow diagram

Difference between burnup and burndown chart

Burnup ChartBurndown Chart
1. Burnup chart tracks the amount of work
completed in a given time.
1. A burndown chart tracks the amount of work
remaining in a given time.
2. Used to motivate the team on how much
progress they are making.
2. Used by project managers to understand
if the team is making progress as expected.

Using agile burndown charts effectively

Agile burndown charts are a great way to visualize a sprint’s progress. Like all tools, scrum masters and product owners should follow a few rules to ensure that they can derive full value from Burndown Charts.

  1. Spend sufficient time breaking down user stories and estimating them.
  2. Ensure you are tracking the right metric for sprint progress.
  3. Encourage your team to update statuses for their tasks as and when they complete them.
  4. Use the burndown chart for your daily standup.
  5. Wait for a few days to spot patterns before taking any corrective measures.